In February 2013, a salvage excavation was conducted at the Horbat Kosher antiquities site (Permit No. A-6706; map ref. 213244–311/743955–4009; Fig. 1), prior to the construction of a reservoir. The excavation, undertaken on behalf of the Israel Antiquities Authority and financed by the Mekorot Company, was directed by M. Hater, with the assistance of Y. Amrani (administration), R. Mishayev and M. Kahan (surveying and drafting), P. Gendelman (pottery reading), M. Shuiskaya (pottery drawing), K. Sa‘id and L. Talmi.
Winepress A had a simple plan consisting of a square treading floor (L102; c. 1.6 × 1.6 m; Fig. 3) and a well-hewn collecting vat (L103; c. 1.00 × 1.05 m) devoid of plaster signs. A sump (diam. 0.3 m, depth 0.2 m), in which the grape pomace was collected, was hewn at the southeastern end of the collecting vat. Winepress B was more complex and was plastered. It had a rectangular treading floor (L106; 2.08 × 2.70 m, depth 0.17–0.22 m; Fig. 4) with smoothed margins. Natural depressions that disrupted the surface were filled with stones and probably plastered over. A collecting vat (L105; 1.90 × 1.97 m, depth 1.7 m; Fig. 5) was located to the southwest and a channel (L109; length 1.75 m, depth 0.4 m) used to convey the must was hewn between the treading floor and the vat. Four steps were hewn in the southern side of the collecting vat. A sump (diam. 0.65 m, depth 0.35 m), which collecting the remainder of the must, was located in its northeastern corner. A filtration vat (L107; 0.65 × 0.70 m, depth 0.52 m; Fig. 6) was discovered near the collecting vat. Fragments of several jars dating to the Byzantine period (fifth–seventh centuries CE; Fig. 7) were found.
The dating of the winepresses to the Byzantine period on the basis of the pottery finds indicates that the area was used for wine production at that time. The winepresses were found near Horbat Kosher, where most of the surviving buildings date to the Ottoman period. It therefore seems likely that a Byzantine period occupation lies beneath the Ottoman remains.