David Razi’el Street
Raziel Street (Fig. 2)—originally Alexander Howard St., named for its builder, and later Bustros St.—was the main street paved in the late nineteenth century in a new section of the city outside the city wall, south of the walled city. The road was paved as part of an intensive building momentum outside the city walls, which was sponsored by European governments, local entrepreneurs, and later by the Ottoman government.
The course of the street appears on maps as early as the beginning of the nineteenth century. It is not clear, however, if its route at the time was precisely that of the current street. To its north was a Muslim cemetery; the street served as its southern border (Yannun 2001:235–252). The route continued northward, beyond the city, becoming the main road leading from Jaffa to Nablus and ‘Akko. Several prominent Jewish institutions were located along the western part of this street, including the local office of the Zionist Organization, which was managed by Arthur Rupin, the original building of Ha-Gimansiya Ha-‘Ivrit and the Kaminitz Hotel, where Herzl stayed during his visit.
Prior to the excavation, the asphalt of the modern street was removed, and the area was excavated mechanically to a depth of 0.5 m. This was followed by a manual excavation. Ten squares were opened (Sq 1–10; Figs. 2–4); their length varied (3–7 m) in accordance with the direction of the street and the infrastructure below it. After the excavation was completed, a trench (length c. 4.5 m) was dug across the site by mechanical means. The excavation revealed a series of five pavements (1–5). In Sqs 1, 9 and 10, several of the pavements were disturbed by later activity; in the rest of the squares all five pavements were exposed, but were not always easy to differentiate (e.g., Sq 2; Fig. 5). In Sq 1, in the sterile hamra below the street pavements (depth 2.6 m) was a jar burial of a fetus (Nagar, below; Fig. 6).
 
Phase 5. The earliest pavement was made of light-colored, crushed and tamped sandstone (e.g., L116 [Sq 6]) with fills that included natural accumulations of sandy soil (L115 [Sq 7], L124 [Sq 6], L125 [Sq 5], L127 [Sq 8]; Fig. 4: Sections 2–2, 3–3).
Pavement 116 (Sq 6) yielded a rich assemblage, including glazed bowls, apparently from the eastern Mediterranean (Greece, Turkey and the nearby islands) dating from the nineteenth–twentieth centuries CE (Fig. 7:2–5); Çanakkale Warebowls from the late eighteenth–early twentieth centuries CE (Fig. 7:6, 7); a green-glazed bowl (Fig. 7:8); a Didymoteicho bowl, dated to the nineteenth–mid twentieth centuries CE (Fig. 7:9); European porcelain bowls (Fig. 7:10, 11); transfer-printed bowls from Europe, dated to the eighteenth–early twentieth centuries CE (Fig. 7:12, 13); Gaza Ware bowls (Fig. 7:14–16); a glazed cooking pot from Siphnos, dated to the eighteenth–twentieth centuries CE (Fig. 7:17); a Gaza Ware jar (Fig. 7:18); plain ware jars (Fig. 7:19, 20); a Gaza Ware jar or jug (Fig. 7:21); a Gaza Ware jug (Fig. 7:22); an unglazed, Ottoman-period folded lamp (Fig. 7:23); and four fragments of clay pipes, one of Type 2, two of Type 3 and one of Type 4, according to Sharvit (below: Table 1), ranging in date from the second half of the eighteenth century to the late nineteenth century CE. A coin (1839–1861 CE; B230) was also found in this pavement.
The fills beneath the street (L125 [Sq 5]; Fig. 8), which included natural accumulations of sandy soil, contained a water pipe (Fig 7:1), a smoking pipe (Type 5; Sharvit, below: Table 1), dated to the late nineteenth century CE, and a coin dated to the Mamluk period (fourteenth century CE; B269; IAA 139037).
 
Phase 4. The Phase 4 pavement was made of tamped earth (L123 [Sq 5], L111 [Sq 6], L118 [Sq 7], L126 [Sq 8]; Figs. 4: Sections 2–2, 3–3; 9); its upper surface was well packed, and its lower part was a bedding of dark brown soil, spotted with light brown soil.
A fill (L115) covering Pavement 118 (Sq 7; Fig. 10) contained a coin (1839–1861 CE; B231); a glazed bowl, apparently from the eastern Mediterranean (Fig. 11:1); Çanakkale Warebowls from the late eighteenth–early twentieth centuries CE (Fig. 11:2); and Gaza Ware bowls (Fig. 11:3, 4); as well as five fragments of clay pipes, two of Type 4, two of Type 5 and one of Type 7 (Sharvit, below: Table 1), dating from the late nineteenth–early twentieth centuries CE.
Finds from the fill (L120) above Pavement 126 (Sq 8; Fig. 9) included a glazed bowl, apparently from the eastern Mediterranean, dating from the nineteenth–twentieth centuries (Fig. 11:5)—the latest datable sherd in this assemblage; a European porcelain bowl from the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries (Fig. 11:6); a Gaza Ware bowl (Fig. 11:9) and Gaza Ware jars (Fig. 11:10, 11) from the Ottoman period; and a fragment of a Type 5 clay pipe (Sharvit, below: Table 1). A coin from Accumulation 113 (Sq 8; B225) dates from the nineteenth century.
 
Phase 3.This is the uppermost Ottoman-period pavement. It was made of tamped earth, which was plastered in some places (L307 [Sq 1], L117 [Sq 5; Fig. 8], L107 [Sq 6], L106/L109 [Sq 7; Fig.10], L102/L103 [Sq 8; Fig. 9], L105 [Sq 9]; Fig. 4: Sections 1–1, 2–2). Finds from this pavement included fragments of European porcelain bowls of an undetermined date (Fig. 11:7, 8).
 
Phase 2 dates from the time of the British Mandate. The bedding is made of limestone and sandstone blocks set on their narrow side, covered with gravel (Fig. 5, above the sacks).
 
Phase 1 consists of the modern-day asphalt paving of the street. This pavement was renewed several times since the British Mandate. Numerous nails and other metal items were found along the street (Fig. 12), evidence of the intense activity that took place along it.
 
Clay Pipes and Narghiles
Yonel Sharvit
 
Eighty-seven clay pipes and narghiles from the Ottoman and British Mandate periods were unearthed in the excavation on Razi’el Street. The vast majority (c. 95%) date from the nineteenth century (Table 1: Types 3–7). The finds can be divided into two groups: 55 pipe heads and 32 narghile heads. The rather high percentage of narghiles (c. 37%) reflects the urban character of the street, which probably had workshops and coffee houses set among private dwellings. Seven types with several subtypes of items were identified in the assemblage (Table 1). All these types have a tenon joint, indicating that this was the preferred design in Jaffa. Whereas some of the pipes and narghiles were locally made, others were produced in Turkey, Egypt and Gaza. The breakdown of pipes and narghiles from these various provenances corresponds to that known from other excavations in Israel (Simpson 2000: Fig. 13.9:198). The assemblage of pipes and narghiles corroborates our historical understanding of Jaffa, which was in the Ottoman period a lively port city with trade ties with Turkey and Egypt.
 
Table 1. Clay Pipes and Narghiles
Item
Type
Fig. 13
Quantity
Description
Date (CE) and Comments
Pipe
1
1
1
Shank and bowl decorated with various stamps, rouletted strips and slits 
Mid-17th – early 18th c. (Torgë 1999: Fig. 24:4, 5)
Pipe
2A
 
3
Round bowl and short shank. Slipped and burnished, usually in red-brown. The shank and keel are decorated
Second half of the 18th and 19th c., probably locally made (Simpson 2000: Fig. 13.3:47, 51)
Pipe
2B
2, 3
2
‘Shibaq’ type with a round bowl and a short shank, a rather simple wreath and decoration. Brown-red slip, burnished. The shank is stamped with a crescent with prunts.
The second half of the 18th c. and the 19th c. (Gudovitch 1999: Fig. 80:23)
Pipe
3
4, 5
14
Long shank and a flat or rounded base. A lily-shaped shank-end, slipped and burnished in red hues. Body decorated with lines and ladder patterns 
19th c. (Segal 2006: Fig. 9:15)
Pipe
4
6, 7
3
Thickened bowl base. The shank narrows toward the bowl. The bowl's base is rounded. The shank-end is flower-like. The pipe is slipped and well-burnished. The decoration is petal-like with rouletted lines at on the edges
Late 19th c. (Peilstöcker 2005: Fig. 12:2)
Pipe
4A
8, 9
17
A 'trumpet-base' bowl. Several bare a stamp on the base. A round stamp with an Arabic inscription
Late 19th c. (Avissar 2005:91, Fig. 4.4:87)
Pipe
4B
 
3
 
Late 19th c. (Avissar 2005:91, Fig. 4.4:88)
Pipe
4C
 
2
 
No parallels; locally made
Pipe
5
10, 11
5
'Platter-base' bowl
Late 19th c.; prevalent in Turkey and Egypt
Pipe
5A
 
1
Small 'platter-base' bowl
Late 19th c.; imported from Egypt (Pradines 2002)
Pipe
6
12
4
Two identical bowls, each bearing a round stamp with an Arabic inscription: "A/T.L.H"
Early 20th c.; imported from Turkey (Gosse 2007:223; Milošević and Nikolina 2011:320–321, Figs. 64, 66, 67)
Narghile
7
13, 14
18
Mold-made. The 'skirt' has a thin platter designed as a flower and petals
Late 19th c. and early 20th c.; imported from Turkey (Simpson 2000: Fig. 13.9:198)
Narghile
7A
 
9
Local imitation of Type 7
No parallels; locally made
Narghile
7B
 
5
Simple bowl, with neither slip nor burnish. The 'skirt' is thick and slanted
No parallels; locally made
 
Fetus Burial
Yossi Nagar
 
A burial jar (L322; Figs. 4: Section 1–1; 6) was found in a clean layer of hamra, at a depth of 2.6 m in Sq 1. The jar contained poorly preserved bones of a baby; several were in an advanced state of fossilization, as a kurkar rock had formed around them. The finds included a fragment of the frontal cranial bone, diaphysis of the humerus, a femur and undiagnostic bone fragments. The length of the humerus (48–50 mm) is typical of a fetus. Fetuses buried in jars were found in the nearby site of the Qishle, and is dated to the Mamluk or Ottoman period (Kósa 1989).
 
 
Yonatan Ratosh Street
Nine squares of various sizes, planned in consideration of the conditions of the site, were opened along the entire length of the street (300 sq m; Figs. 14–17), yielding 61 graves, which were classified into five types. In the fill above the graves were two coins dating from 1839–1861 CE (L118, Sq 9, B322; L130, Sq D4, B362).
 
Pit graves (T6, T7, T10, T15, T18, T22, T33, T34, T36, T39, T61, T62; Fig. 18). These 12 graves were hewn trenches or pits, typical of an area rich in rock outcrops. The graves were sometimes covered with local stone slabs.
 
Cist graves (T4, T5, T8, T9, T11–T13, T16, T17, T19–T21, T23–T25, T28–T32, T36A, T42, T45, T48–T56, T58–T60; Fig. 18). These 35 tombs were rectangular pits dug in the earth and lined with slabs of local beach rock.
 
Cist graves with a superstructure (T1, T2, T26, T27, T37, T38, T41, T43, T44, T57; Fig. 19). These ten cist graves are characterized by a rectangular structure (height up to 1.1 m) built above the slabs covering the cist.
 
Built tombs. Only two graves of this type were discovered (T40, T47; Fig. 20). This tomb type is characterized by a rectangular structure, often plastered, covered with a mixture of cement and fieldstones.
 
Vaulted Tombs. Only two graves of this type were discovered (T3, T14; Figs. 21, 22). These tombs are vaulted enclosures, built of dressed limestones, with a well-built opening set in one of the narrow sides of the grave. It seems that both are family tombs, known in Arabic as fustuquieh, dating from the ottoman period. Two such tombs were found at the Qishle (Arbel and Talmi 2009).
 
Excavations at Razi’el St. revealed five phases of pavements representing the development of Jaffa’s main street outside the city walls, dating from the first settlement in the area in the late nineteenth century until the street’s most recent paving following the founding of the State of Israel. Even though the pavements and their beddings contained pottery sherds and coins, a precise date could not be established for the separate pavements. Infant jar burials, as the one found in Sq 1, were a customary practice in medieval times, and should be dated to the Mamluk or early Ottoman period. The graves unearthed on Yonatan Ratosh St. belong to the city’s Ottoman-period cemetery, which was located outside the city walls.