Area A3. The aqueduct’s channel (specus) was preserved in situ only at the southern end of the area that was excavated this season, whereas elsewhere in the area collapsed parts of the specus were found at the western foot of the aqueduct’s foundation. The foundation was preserved to a height of 1–2 courses on the aqueduct’s eastern side. However, the foundation stones on its western side were probably dismantled, and it was only preserved to a maximum height of one course. The eastern side of the foundation was built primarily of medium and large chalk stones, mainly fieldstones and occasionally ashlars; the courses are disrupted in several places due to destruction or weathering. The spaces between the stones were often filled with smaller stones, without cement. Generally, the foundation was not constructed directly on of the chalk bedrock but rather on a layer of virgin soil or on a layer of eroded flint (max. thickness 0.3 m) that were deposited on the bedrock.
Parallel to the western side of the aqueduct, running alongside it almost its entire length, was a field wall that was exposed in previous seasons. The wall was built of limestone and flint fieldstones, as well as stones in secondary use that had collapsed from the aqueduct. The height of the wall and its distance from the aqueduct varied. The wall was obviously erected after the stones were robbed from the aqueduct’s foundation and parts of the specus had collapsed. Although it is clear that the wall was constructed after the aqueduct was no longer used, it does relate to the aqueduct’s remains. The wall may have delimited a road.
Area A4. The two southernmost squares, which up to the excavation served as an access road, were excavated, revealing the eastern part of the aqueduct. In this section, the foundation turned sharply to the west, and then returned eastward. The foundation courses slanted steeply to the west (Fig. 2), probably due to poor construction, the dismantling of stones and the pressure of the clay soil on the slope above the aqueduct.
The excavation also continued in five squares where the upper construction lines of the eastern part of the aqueduct’s foundations and the field wall were exposed in previous seasons. This season, the eastern side of the aqueduct’s foundation was exposed, while its western side was only revealed intermittently. In one place four rows of parallel stepped-stones were uncovered (Fig. 3). The higher eastern row served as the foundation of the aqueduct; below it was probably a stone course that had collapsed from the foundation; below that was the western foundation of the aqueduct; and at the bottom, in the west, was the field wall. The aqueduct’s foundation wall in this area was built mainly of very friable white or pale yellow chalk blocks, though one section was constructed of large flint fieldstones that are probably indigenous. Numerous flint stones were incorporated in the field wall, as in Area A3, and part of it was built of large blocks of hard limestone. The height of the wall and its distance from the aqueduct varied, and sometimes it was built directly on top of the remains of the western part of the aqueduct’s foundation.
Only a small number of pottery fragments dating to the First Temple period were found in the excavation. Pottery sherds from the time of the Second Temple were somewhat more numerous, and date mainly from the first century BCE. The majority of the ceramic finds discovered date to the Late Roman and Byzantine periods, although the affinity between these finds and the operation of the aqueduct is unclear. Three lead bullae, probably dating from the Byzantine period, were discovered in the south of Area A4 (Fig. 4). Lead bullae are a rare phenomenon in Jerusalem and its environs, and there is no apparent connection between them and the aqueduct.