The survey area was divided into two sub-areas (A, B) separated by a broad wadi that descends toward the main channel of Nahal ‘Anava. Area A is characterized by a tall, steep central knoll (A), and three low knolls (A1–A3) to its west. Several low knolls (B1–B6) are spread out in Area B.
Later disturbances in the form of soil and rock piles are a result of modern road construction, evident along the fringes of the survey area, particularly in the east and south. Forestation on the part of the Jewish National Fund is apparent at the northeastern end of the area, near the ‘Anava Park.
One hundred nineteen sites (1–119; Figs. 1–3) were identified and are described below from east to west.
Winepresses (2, 20, 23). Winepress 2 is shallow and consists of an irregular treading floor (c. 1.0×1.2 m; Fig. 4) and a channel that leads to a collecting vat, blocked with vegetation. Winepress 20 is shallow and includes a sloping elliptical treading floor (0.8×1.1 m) and a channel leading to a collecting vat that is blocked with vegetation. Winepress 23, which is hewn on top of Knoll A, includes a square treading floor (3.5×4.0 m) and a collecting vat (1.2×2.0 m) blocked with vegetation.
Installations (12, 29, 59). Installation 12 includes a cupmark and a hewn surface that is partially covered with alluvium (Fig. 5). Site 29 is a small hewn installation that includes a treading floor (0.4×0.6 m) and a channel leading from the floor to a small collecting vat. Installation 59 consists of cupmarks and basins (?) hewn in a bedrock surface.
Stone Heaps (15, 26–28, 34, 35, 38, 40, 74, 75, 95, 98, 111, 115). Clearance heaps or piles of raw material intended for limekilns (diam. 3.5–8.0 m).
Quarry (86). A site where chalk was mined, probably intended for burning in the limekilns.
Rock-cuttings (21, 58). A row of small depressions hewn in a bedrock terrace at Site 21 and a depression in the middle of a flat hillock at Site 58.
Limekilns (53, 57, 70, 82, 97, 113).
Underground cavities (4–6, 8, 24, 64, 69, 96). Fig trees are growing in most of the cavities, which were probably used as cisterns.
Caves (3, 11, 18, 22, 106). The caves are blocked with vegetation. Cave 3 was closed with large fieldstones, some of which were collapse. A large heap is in the opening of Cave 11.
Building Remains (36, 47, 48, 85, 92–94, 99, 109). Ruins of a structure built on a bedrock terrace are at Site 36. Remains of a building (2×2 m) were found at Site 47. Remains of an elliptical building (2×3 m) are present at Site 48. An elliptical structure (1.5×2.0 m), built of small fieldstones in dry construction, was recorded at Site 85. Site 92 is a bedrock terrace with remains of dry construction, including an east–west aligned wall and an elliptical building. Remains of a square building (7×7 m), survived by its eastern and southern walls, were found at Site 93. Remains of a round fieldstone-built structure (diam. c. 5 m) were found at Site 94. Remains of a building with four surviving walls were found at Site 99. A rectangular enclosure built of a row of stones and slabs, without mortar, was found at Site 109.
Walls (25, 41, 66, 67, 72, 73, 76, 78, 79, 81, 83, 88–91, 101, 102, 104, 105, 107, 110, 112, 116, 118). The walls are built of fieldstones.
Terrace Walls (7, 9, 10, 13, 14, 16, 17, 19, 30–33, 37, 39, 42, 44, 46, 51, 52, 54, 56, 60, 65, 68, 71, 117).
Enclosure Walls (43, 45, 62).
Watchman’s Huts (49, 50, 55, 61, 77, 87, 114). The sizes of the watchman’s huts are varied (2×2 m, 3×4 m).
Roads (80, 84, 108). Road 80 (width c. 5 m) is aligned east–west. Road 84 extends north–south and an elliptical building (85) is located nearby. Road 108 is oriented east–west and its northern wall is very wide (c. 1.4 m).
Miscellania. Sarcophagi are scattered at Site 1; they might have been converted for use as troughs (Fig. 6).
In addition to these sites, several discrete areas were identified:
Area 1. A complex of walls, underground cavities and installations is located along the northeastern slopes of Knoll A, near an excavation conducted by A. Onn (Permit Nos. A-3535, A-3599).
Area 63. A walled enclosure is situated on the southeastern slope of a concealed knoll (B2).
Area 119. A spur descending from a concealed knoll (B5) to the Nahal ‘Anava channel is characterized by terrace walls.
Area 200. The gentle northern slopes that descend from Knoll A are characterized by numerous terrace walls, of which several representative walls were measured.
The surveyed remains indicate that the entire area was used in antiquity for farming (terrace walls and agricultural complexes) and industry (limekilns and quarrying sites for raw material used in the kilns). Most of the finds were of an agricultural/industrial nature and included farming terraces, limekilns, cisterns, stone clearance heaps, watchman’s huts, roads, caves and rock-hewn installations. Very dense clusters of terrace walls were identified along all the slopes and in the channels. Especially noteworthy is the northern slope of Knoll A (Area 200) which was entirely covered with terrace walls.
It seems that the region along Nahal ‘Anava was used in later periods for quarrying limestone used in the lime industry. Numerous limekilns are found in the area, as well as sites where the chalk for burning was hewn, and limestone that was consolidated in many heaps.
There is a chain of Late Ottoman limekilns still in place today, west of the survey area along Nahal ‘Anava. Their connection to the survey area should not be ignored, particularly to the limestone slopes that steeply descend toward the main channel of Nahal ‘Anava. Limestone quarries and heaps of hewn raw materials that were used in the limekilns were documented throughout the northern part of the survey area.
Several hillocks in Area B are flat and surrounded by walls. Habitation remains might be found in them, buried underground.