Area A. A circular watchman’s hut (outer diam. 4.2 m, inner diam. 2.8 m; Fig. 2) was exposed. It was constructed from large dressed stones founded on the bedrock (wall thickness c. 2 m, max. preserved height c. 2 m). The floor was composed of tamped earth and the ceiling was vaulted. The watchman’s hut was filled with stone collapse. The entrance to the structure was set in the southern side, and two crosses were engraved in the lintel stone (Fig. 3). Three storage compartments were built into the wall of the hut. It seems that steps leading to a second floor (presumed height c. 4 m) were built in the eastern side of the wall. The pottery finds included fragments of a cooking pot and pipes dating to the nineteenth and twentieth centuries CE.
Area B. A rock-hewn cave, consisting of an elliptical chamber (diam. c. 3 m), was exposed. Two adjacent openings, separated by a stone column and leading to the cave, were hewn in its western side. A large quantity of ash devoid of any datable finds was discovered in the cave.
Area C. A square, natural cave (2.0×3.5 m) was exposed. Its opening, including a rock-hewn step, was fixed in its eastern side. A circular niche was hewn north of the entrance and a thick layer of hearth ash (thickness 0.2 m) was discovered on the bottom of the cave. Green patina that may be evidence of an ancient spring was visible on the middle of the western side of the cave.
Area D. A large natural cave of irregular shape (5×10 m) was exposed. Two openings were in the front of the cave; one was blocked with fieldstones and the other remained open (width 1.5 m). A layer of alluvium and hearth ash, devoid of finds, was discovered in the cave.
Area E (10×10 m; Fig. 4). Two rock-hewn winepresses were revealed. The northern winepress included a square treading floor (2×2 m) and a small collecting vat (0.5×0.5 m). Next to the eastern side of the winepress was a hewn vat (1.1×1.7 m) that had steps cut in its eastern side. The vat was coated with a thick layer of plaster. A sump (0.5×0.7 m) was hewn in the bottom of the vat, next to its western side. An opening (diam. 0.2 m) was hewn in the vat’s ceiling, right above the sump. It seems that the vat was used to store the must from the northern winepress. The southern winepress included a rectangular treading floor (2.7×3.3 m) and a collecting vat (0.7×1.0 m). A small depression was hewn in the bottom of the collecting vat. A built and plastered channel led from the southeastern opening of the collecting vat to a large vat nearby. The northern side of the winepress was built of stones. Two niches were hewn in the eastern side of the winepress, intended for placing press beams. A layer of ash was discovered on the treading floors of both winepresses. The ash contained many potsherds, including bowls, cooking pots, jars, stands, as well as a ceramic weight and a bead. The ceramic finds dated from the Late Iron Age until the end of the Persian period (seventh–fifth centuries BCE).
The area was subsequently adapted for use as a quarry, particularly the area south of the southern winepress.
Many farming terraces were built in the excavation area during the Ottoman period. The quarrying surfaces were leveled with medium and large stones and terra rossa soil was deposited on them. The farming terrace walls were founded on the bedrock and built of large fieldstones (height 2–3 m). The soil fill on the farming terraces contained fragments of pottery vessels, among them black Gaza ware jars, clay pipes and fragments of handmade vessels dating to the Ottoman period.
Area F (2×3 m). A shallow rectangular rock-cutting in a bedrock surface was exposed. This rock-cutting was one of many rock-cuttings in the region.
Winepresses, dating from the Late Iron Age until the end of the Persian period, were revealed in the excavation area. Later, probably in the Byzantine period, the area was used as a quarry where building stones were hewn. During the Ottoman period, the ground was prepared for cultivation and large farming terraces and watchman’s huts were built. In addition, three caves that were used as seasonal dwellings by shepherds in the past century were discovered.