Cluster of Mills and Aqueducts—Remains of eight mills are located downstream, over a distance of hundreds of meters. In two of the mills, which operated until the mid-twentieth century, the chimney was doubled and another room was built for paddlewheels and millstones. Another flour mill situated along the road going up to the bridge above Nahal Qeni also operated in the last century. Aqueducts were located before the er-Ras mill, the bridge mill and the Haddad Mill (below). Architectural elements were found in secondary use in some of the aqueducts, as well as aqueduct stones that have a U-shaped cross-section, which seem to predate the twentieth century CE. The mills are described, according to the order of their location downstream.
1) Er-Ras Mill, located on the southern bank of the stream (Figs. 1: 1–4; 2), is a large structure with two chimneys and a double array of paddlewheels and millstones. An aqueduct, remains of pools (Fig. 3), caves and buildings are found next to the structure. Architectural elements from the Mamluk period were discerned in secondary use on a wall in one of the buildings.
2) A ruinous structure located on the stream’s southern bank (Fig. 1: 6). Only the walls had survived and the adjacent buildings, which are probably the mill’s service buildings. Remains of neither a chimney, nor the mill’s installations, were discerned.
3) El-Qirat Mill (Fig. 1: 10, 11). A building located on the northern bank of Nahal Qeni; next to it are many other buildings and tops of walls. Elements in secondary use, including a stone with drafted margins, were discerned.
4) A ruinous mill on the northern bank of Nahal Qeni. Buildings and a wall of an aqueduct are located within the ruins (Fig. 1: 13).
5) The bridge mill (Fig. 1: 17) on the northern part of the road going up to the bridge; the aqueduct and chimney are in the western part of the mill. Sections of aqueducts were surveyed northwest of the bridge (Fig. 1: 12, 14).
6) The Haddad Mill (Fig. 1: 18, 19) consists of a building that has several rooms, a double chimney and an aqueduct. The tops of ancient walls are discerned in its foundations (Fig. 4). Architectural elements, including fragments of columns and bases, are incorporated in the length of the aqueduct. Remains of walls and an ancient aqueduct were exposed in the channel east of the mill (Fig. 1: 20).
7) A two-room building on the northern bank of the channel (Fig. 1: 21, 22). Stones with drafted margins were discerned in the walls of the mill.
8) A mill east of the Megiddo Junction (Fig. 1: 23, 24). Remains of the mill’s aqueduct and sections of the chimney were found nearby.
Dozens of meters of built and excavated aqueducts are located in Nahal Qeni. Some of these remains incorporate architectural elements in secondary use, as well as aqueduct stones with a U-shaped cross-section, which apparently predated the twentieth century CE. Built aqueducts were located just upstream from the er-Ras mill, the bridge mill and the Haddad mill. An aqueduct, whose construction is different than the others, seems to be part of an earlier complex that was documented at the foot of the Haddad mill. A rock-hewn aqueduct was located in the stream channel at the foot of the spring house.
The Mill Works’ Diverting Dam—A built wall northwest of the second flour mill; the foundation (width at least 2 m, min. height 2 m; Fig. 1: 5, 7, 8) is coated with plaster on its western side. The wall is built across the channel (length c. 60 m) and extends from the bedrock outcrop on the southern bank to the northern bank where a breach, through which the stream flows, exits.
Bridge—A structure located between two pointed arches is located in the stream channel, at the foot of Khan Lejun (Figs. 1: 15, 16; 5). The foundations of the bridge are well-built and precise. It seems to have had three arches north of the flour mill, and it is known to have functioned as a main transportation artery still in 1947. A fragment of a column base is located in the stream channel near the bridge (Fig. 6).
Spring House and Tunnel—The lines of walls and corners of a large structure can be discerned at the edge of the buildings and ruins of the Lejun village, on the northern bank of Nahal Qeni. The place had been identified in the past as the village spring house, which is mentioned in Muslim geographical history. The built vault on the ground floor of the building access an underground rock-hewn tunnel (length c. 20 m; Figs. 1: 5, 9; 7), whose upper part is built and a hewn and well-plastered aqueduct is located in its lower part. An aqueduct is hewn for several meters in the stream channel at the base of the building. Architectural elements and a round installation, built of small stones and roof tile fragments and coated with a thick layer of plaster on its bottom part, were documented near the spring.
Water flows year-round in Nahal Qeni and the channel floods frequently during rainy winters. No building remains were documented in the upper part of the channel and its lower part was prepared as a modern channel in the twentieth century. In the channel’s middle section, at the foot of Qibbuz Megiddo, east of the Megiddo Junction, the stream flows in the area of the Legio-Lejun antiquities site. Archaeological remains and pottery dating from the Roman period to the modern era were documented at this site, evidence of the settlements that were located near the source of water. Although most of the architectural remains documented in the survey are from the Ottoman period and the British Mandate era, it nevertheless seems that some of them were founded on top of ancient buildings in the stream channel, which the water exposes from time to time.