Stratum VII. An extensive portion of a plaster floor, composed of burnt lime, was exposed (Fig. 2). The floor was founded on small stones placed on virgin soil. The flint tools from this stratum included arrowheads and sickle blades, characteristic of the Pre-Pottery Neolithic B (Fig. 3).
Stratum VI. Two walls that formed the corner of a large building were exposed in two of the squares in Area I1 (Fig. 4). The pottery was found in clusters, resting on the walls; it included vessel types characteristic of the Yarmukian and Jericho IX (Lodian) cultures, dating to the Pottery Neolithic period (Figs. 5, 6). A layer of stones that contained finds from the Pottery Neolithic period was exposed in Area I2.
Stratum V. Remains from this layer were only found in a limited region in the south of the excavation area. Three rows of stones that formed a rectangular space were built upon a floor. It is unclear if these were the remains of thin walls or of an installation (Fig. 7). A ceramic jar found beneath the floor and several potsherds above it (Fig. 8) belong to the Wadi Rabah culture, thus suggesting the structure should be dated to the beginning of the Early Chalcolithic period.
Stratum IV. Fragmentary remains of round or elliptical buildings that do not join up to form complete structures were discovered (Figs. 9, 10). The potsherds found in this layer, dating it to Early Bronze Age IA, included gray-burnished kraters and holemouth jars with ridge ornamentations near the rim.
Stratum III. Large elliptical buildings, very similar to the structures uncovered in Stratum III in Qiryat Ata (IAA Reports 18), were exposed (Fig. 11). Only half of the eastern building was exposed and the western building was uncovered in its entirety and had an abundance of broken storage vessels, in situ, on its floor (Fig. 12). This pottery indicates that the building should be ascribed to an early phase of Early Bronze Age IB. The assemblage included holemouth jars with rounded and thickened rims, pithoi with an upright rim that is not curved and a late type of a gray-burnished krater.
Stratum II.Sections of meager construction and a few potsherds from diverse periods were found. The potsherds could not be attributed with any degree of certainty to the architectural remains. Early Bronze Age II, Intermediate Bronze Age, Middle Bronze Age and the Roman period stand out among the periods, to which these sherds are ascribed. A tomb attributed to the Middle Bronze Age was found; it contained scant remains of human bones and a bronze spearhead with a socket (Fig. 13). The corner of a building (Fig. 14) that probably dated to the Early Roman period was discovered close to the surface in the eastern part of the excavation area.
Stratum I. A courtyard surrounded by several rooms, which is part of a large courtyard building, was discovered (Fig. 15). The remains of the structure included the foundations and fragments of roof tiles, which most likely, covered the rooms and were found on the surface. The source of the roof tiles is the port of Marseilles and most were stamped with the heart-shaped emblem of the Roux Frères roof-tile factory (Fig. 16:1). The roof tiles indicate that the building was erected at the end of the nineteenth century CE. Several other roof tiles were stamped with a swan symbol (Fig. 16:2); these were probably imported in a later phase of the building’s existence, at the beginning of the twentieth century, for the purpose of repair. According to Micah Linn of Qibbuz Mishmar Ha-‘Emeq, the building was no longer standing at the time when the qibbuz was founded in 1930 and therefore, it is estimated to have been in use for only several decades.
The excavation has shown that an archaeological tell, which is not visible on the surface, is located in the north of the site. Seven strata were identified, the earliest dating to the Pre-Pottery Neolithic B period and the latest—to the Late Ottoman period. Several potsherds from periods that were not attributed to archaeological strata indicate that the tell conceals layers, which have not yet been identified. The finds from the Pre-Pottery Neolithic period in Stratum VII were settlement remains, showing that the cultic compound discovered in Area H was not detached from the settlement. The building and the rest of the remains from the Pottery Neolithic period in Stratum VI add to a generally growing scene of settlements from this period in the north of the country. The pottery assemblage recovered from the remains of Stratum III join the finds from the beginning of Early Bronze Age IB in Area G and its analysis will provide a more exact definition of the material culture of this phase.