Two layers of soil – L001, the upper and L002, the lower – were discovered in both squares. These layers contained finds from the Mamluk and Ottoman periods. The soil beneath them was only excavated in the southern part of Square 1 and the northeastern part of Square 2.
Square 1 was located in the southeastern side of the excavation and only a small part of it was excavated to depth. A room (L011) delimited by four walls, W101 in the northeast; W102 in the southeast; W103 in the southwest; and W104 in the northwest (Fig. 3), built of medium-sized fieldstones, was exposed. Wall 102, preserved two courses high, was revealed in its entirety. The rest of the walls were partially exposed and preserved a single course high. The walls were built on top of a refuse pit (L005) that was partly excavated and seems to continue to the northwest and southeast, beyond the limits of the square (see Fig. 3). Hard hamra soil (L007; Fig. 1: Sections 2-2, 3-3), which was excavated below the refuse pit, contained potsherds that were not worn and an intact lamp dating to the Abbasid period.
Square 2. The square was located in the northwest of the excavation. Only its eastern part was excavated to depth. Two foundation courses of a wall (W100; Fig. 4), running the length of the square, were discovered. They were built of small fieldstones in a manner similar to that of the walls revealed in Square 1. The bottom course was slightly wider than the one atop it. The wall was only partly exposed and in the northwestern balk of the square, it continued in that direction. A probe dug by a backhoe at the end of the excavation revealed that the wall also continued to the southeast, toward Square 1 and even beyond. A small section of a stone pavement (L008) was discovered below the lower soil layer (L002) in the northern part of the square. It should be noted that when excavating the entire soil layer, numerous stones, probably dislodged from the floor, were discovered, and it therefore seems that the pavement originally extended across the area of both squares, although the exact outline of the floor is unknown. The floor consisted of small fieldstones and it was not excavated, except for a small section in a probe that was opened in the southeastern corner of the square (Fig. 1: Section 1-1). The floor apparently abutted W100. A layer of soil was discovered below Floor 008 and beneath it was another stone pavement (L010) that also abutted W100 (see Fig. 1: Section 1-1). Floor 010 was also not excavated, except for a very small part exposed in the balk. An iron crucible that had been intentionally incorporated between the pavement stones was found in Floor 010. An accumulation (L004) that contained potsherds from the Mamluk period was excavated below Floor 010.
Glazed and unglazed potsherds were discovered in the upper soil layer (L001), excavated in the entire area. The unglazed vessels include a handmade krater that is slipped red and burnished on the inside (Fig. 5:1), dating to the fifteenth–seventeenth centuries CE; an intact jug (Fig. 5:6) dating to the fifteenth–seventeenth centuries CE; and a jar fragment with a perforated decoration (Fig. 5:9). The glazed vessels include an incised bowl imported from Italy (Fig. 6:8), dating to the fourteenth–fifteenth centuries CE; fragments of a base and a rim of a bowl decorated with incising and painted, which is probably of Italian provenance (Fig. 6:10-A, 10-B), from the fourteenth-fifteenth centuries CE; a base of a bowl decorated with incising, probably from Italy (Fig. 6:11) and incised bowls (Fig. 6:12, 13), all dating to the fifteenth–sixteenth centuries CE. Fragments of Ottoman Gaza ware were also discovered (not drawn).
The numismatic finds consist of two coins; one was struck in Halab during the reign of the Mamluk sultan Faraj (1399–1412 CE; IAA 106511), and the other was probably minted in Alexandria during the reign of the Ottoman sultan Ahmed I (1603–1617 CE; IAA 106512).
The lower soil layer (L002) contained unglazed vessels that included a handle of a large handmade jar from the fifteenth–seventeenth centuries CE (Fig. 5:2) and a jar with a perforated decoration (Fig. 5:8). Among the glazed ceramics from that locus is an incised bowl imported from Italy (Fig. 6:7), dating to the fourteenth–fifteenth centuries CE.
Three coins that date to the Mamluk period were also found; one was minted in Cairo during the reign of Sultan al-Nasr Hasan (1354–1361 CE; IAA 106508) and the two others date to the reign of Sultan Barquq (1390–1399 CE; IAA 106509, 106510) and were struck in Hama and Alexandria.
The refuse pit (L005) yielded numerous potsherds that dated to the Mamluk and Ottoman periods; based on the finds the pit was used in the fourteenth–sixteenth centuries CE. The glazed potsherds include a Soft Paste Ware bowl from Syria (Fig. 6:2), a base of a Soft Paste Ware bowl (Fig. 6:4), dating to the thirteenth–fifteenth centuries CE; a base of a carinated bowl imported from Italy (Fig. 6:5), dating to the thirteenth–fifteenth centuries CE; a carinated bowl from Italy (Fig. 6:6), an intact oil lamp from the Mamluk period (Fig. 7) and a glazed lamp spout that probably belongs to a pinched bowl-shaped lamp (Fig. 6:15). The unglazed sherds include a handmade jug with a red painted decoration (Fig. 5:3), dating to the Mamluk period and numerous bowls, both plain and carinated, similar to those usually found in Ramla (Fig. 5:4). Other finds recovered from the refuse pit included a bronze earring with a stone inlay, glass fragments, animal bones and three coins, two from the fourteenth century CE (IAA 106513, 106514) and one from the late fourteenth century CE (IAA 106515).
The hamra layer below Refuse Pit 005 contained a bowl (Fig. 8:1), a jug (Fig. 8:2), juglets (Fig. 8:3, 4), a decorated jar handle (Fig. 8:5), a typical Ramla jar (Fig. 8:6), a fragment of a lamp and an intact lamp (Fig. 9), all characteristic of the Abbasid period.
Fragments of locally produced green-glazed bowls that date to the Mamluk period were found in all loci of Square 1, except for the hamra layer (L007).
The accumulation between Floors 008 and 010 yielded a jar lid (Fig. 5:5), a jar from the thirteenth–fifteenth centuries CE (Fig. 5:7) and a base decorated with a rooster, probably of Spanish provenance and dating to the fifteenth–seventeenth centuries CE (Fig. 6:14). A coin minted in Damascus from the reign of Sultan Baybars (1260–1277 CE; IAA 106507) was also discovered.
The fill below Floor 010 (L004; see Fig. 1: Section 1-1) contained a fragment of a Soft Paste Ware bowl (Fig. 6:3) from Syria that dates to the thirteenth–fifteenth centuries CE.
The sherds discovered in the fill below the level of Floor 008, where the floor was not preserved (L006), include a locally produced Yellow and Green Gouged bowl decorated with an incised fish and dating to the thirteenth–fifteenth centuries CE (Fig. 6:1) and an incised glazed bowl from Italy (Fig. 6:9), dating to the fourteenth–fifteenth centuries CE.
The discovered structure was only partly exposed. Based on the finds, it was built no earlier than the beginning of the fourteenth century CE because coins from that century were found in the refuse pit and the pit predated the construction of the building and continued to be used in the Ottoman period. A coin and pottery from the seventeenth century CE and potsherds from the beginning of the nineteenth century CE were found in the excavation. During the Ottoman period, the old stone floor (L010) was replaced with a new stone pavement (L008). The great variety of pottery from the Mamluk period, particularly the large amount of imported vessels from Italy and possibly Spain, the large number of locally produced glazed and unglazed vessels, some of which are imitations of imported vessels, as well as the variety of the coins and the mints where they were struck, all attest to the wealth of the property owners and to the extensive commercial ties they maintained. These vessels were collected from small probe trenches and allude to the wealth of material finds that remain in the parts of the squares that were not excavated. Furthermore, potsherds and an intact oil lamp from the Abbasid period suggest the existence of a building from that period, which was not exposed, and whose remains are probably in the parts of the square that were not completely excavated or are located nearby.