Limekilns. Two kilns were exposed in the section of the road; one kiln (No.1, diam. 2.6 m, height 2.3 m) was entirely cleaned, but its opening was not revealed. The bedrock-hewn kiln was lined with stones and plaster. The second kiln (No. 2, diam. 3.8 m, height 3.6 m) was larger; it too was bedrock hewn and only its half was excavated (Fig. 2). A thick layer of ash overlain with a layer of lime was on its bottom.


Agricultural Terraces. Five agricultural terraces (Nos. 4, 10, 11, 15, 17), oriented north–south, were built of large boulders set on top of bedrock with small fieldstones in between them. An excavation square was opened next to each terrace (2 m parallel to the terrace, 1 m wide) and excavated down to bedrock, lacking any finds. Some of the agricultural terraces wound for several dozen meters along the hill toward the south. Two of them met further along the hill and at the end of one (No. 17) was a stone clearance heap (No. 19). Five more terraces, oriented east–west (Nos. 6, 8, 16, 20, 21) were built, in accordance with the topography, of large boulders set on bedrock and sometimes smaller stones, without bonding material. Excavating alongside these terraces indicated that they were meant to halt the erosion of soil from the slope. The terraces were laid out in straight lines and did not connect.


Stone Clearance Heaps. Stone clearance heaps of different heights and diameters were visible across the entire surface:


No. in Fig. 1

Diam. (m)

Height (m)









c. 1



c. 1


c. 10

c. 2


c. 6




c. 0.45





c. 1.5

c. 0.25

The clearances heaps were composed of fieldstones and had a white gray patina on the upper stone layer. Nine of the heaps were investigated; about half the diameter in each heap was excavated down to bedrock. Large stones that were placed in a circle directly on the bedrock were exposed at the bottom of Heap 12. Heap 14 contained eight large stones that were arranged in a curve on bedrock, probably to demarcate the heap in its initial phase (Fig. 3). Several fragments of ribbed jars from the Byzantine period were discovered between Heaps 18 and 19.


Walls. Three walls (Nos. 24, 25, 28; width c. 0.8 m) visible on surface were damaged by a tractor working in the area. They were constructed from two rows of medium-sized fieldstones; between the stones and above them were fragments of stone slabs that appeared to be flakes or debris of stone dressing. The walls had no foundations and were preserved two–three courses high. The area on either side of the walls was excavated for a distance of c. 2 m, down to bedrock (Fig. 4). Two low walls (Nos. 13, 27), oriented north–south and built of small loosely arranged stones, were uncovered. The walls abutted other elements, such as the natural bedrock (W27) or agricultural terraces; Wall 13 abutted Terraces 10 and 11.


Ancient Road (?) (No. 3) Two parallel walls (width 0.6 m) built of fieldstones and oriented north–south. The outer faces of the walls were carefully built. A 3 m long area was excavated along one of the walls. It was difficult to determine if these were the remains of a road or walls. A bedrock-hewn cupmark was noted to the west of the walls.


Animal Pen (?) (No. 23) Two fieldstone walls that abutted two large rocks may be part of an animal pen, whose size could not be determined. The remains of what may have been an opening were cleaned between the walls.


The nature of the remains in the area is indicative of farming activity, part of which included the construction of the agricultural terraces and the walls. The activity was carried out throughout the periods and the few finds make it difficult to establish the date of the remains.