Human bones were identified in c. 60 spots, exposed within a layer of light brown kurkar sand; they were not excavated. Some of the bones were damaged and scattered in all directions when the road was paved in the British Mandate era. The multitude of bones indicates the presence of an ancient cemetery, which was severely disturbed. The pottery fragments discovered nearby dated to the Persian and Hellenistic periods and included several jars that could have been used for burial, as was the custom in the Persian period. A bone was discerned in a jar fragment and was left in situ.
A whitish surface of tamped kurkar, whose nature is unclear, was exposed in Squares 21E and 22E. Crushed human bones were discerned inside and on top of the surface. Further up the road to the east, the bedrock was closer to the surface. Toward the end of the excavation, in Squares E27 and E29, crystallized kurkar was found on the roots of trees in brown garden soil devoid of finds. North of this area, at the beginning of the ascent to Rabbi Yehuda Me-Raguza Street, additional remains of bones (limbs) were found.
A section of a moat, oriented east–west, was exposed in the northern part of the area; its southern side turned to the southwest. The moat was hewn in the kurkar bedrock (width 12 m) and its bottom descended gently from east to west (5.06–6.01 m above sea level).
The moat was lined on the south with a sloping wall (counterscarp) that was preserved a single course high. The wall was built of roughly hewn medium-sized stones with thick mortar between them (Fig. 3). A core of small fieldstones, mortar and hamra was preserved above the course of the wall. Four courses of the wall were preserved in the southwest.
A foundation trench of the wall’s (width 2 m, depth c. 0.4–0.5 m) was exposed along the northern side of the moat. All that survived of the wall’s lining was the inner part, built of kurkar ashlars and fieldstones and bonded with light gray mortar with white inclusions; the outer face of the lining was completely robbed.
A tamped layer of fine sandy soil (thickness 0.1 m) was discerned on the floor of the moat. It was overlain with a toppled segment of a massive wall (c. 2.0 × 2.5 m; Fig. 4) built of medium-sized ashlars and bonded with thick white mortar. Diagonal masonry dressing, characteristic of the Crusader period, was evident on some of the wall’s stones. It seems that the collapsed section of wall, which may have been intentionally toppled, was from the southern side of the moat. Numerous ashlars were located in the collapse north and east of the toppled wall.
Based on the pottery vessels recovered from the stone collapse of the moat, the stratum dates to the end of the Crusader period (thirteenth century CE).
The moat was most likely built as a first line of defense, situated some distance from the city itself. The collapse and the section of the fallen wall may be the first indication of the Mamluk destruction of Yafo that occurred when Sultan Beybars destroyed the Crusader coastal cities.
Seven identical wells (1–7), which were damaged and blocked intentionally during the paving of the road in Stratum I, were exposed. They are not laid out in any particular order. Wells 1 and 2 were hewn in kurkar and the others were dug in the sand dunes and therefore postdated the deposition of the dunes. Due to safety precautions, only Well 1, located inside the Crusader moat, was excavated down to the level of the water table (Fig. 5).
The concentration of wells in such a limited area indicates that sources of fresh water were sought along the shoreline during the Ottoman period. The wells were probably an integral part of the Ottoman building complex in the area; only they had survived after the road “shaved away” the buildings to below their foundations.
The mandatory street below the modern asphalt has a massive roadbed of medium-sized “Jerusalem” stones placed next to each other (Fig. 6); a coating of oil survived on some of them. Ottoman buildings and part of the cemetery from the Persian and Hellenistic periods were destroyed as a result of paving the road.