Horbat Bira (33; Map of Lod : Site 33; Khirbat el-Bira; Fig. 3) is a large ruin (c. 20 dunams) on a hill, which was interpreted as an estate (Z. Safrai and S. Dar. 1997. Horbat Bira – An Estate in the Lod Shephelah. In Z. Safrai, Y. Freidman and J. Schwartz, eds. Hikrei Eretz: Studies in the History of the Land of Israel, dedicated to Prof. Y. Feliks. Jerusalem. Pp. 57–125). The antiquities exposed in excavations at the site consisted of an olive press (Fig. 4); a church that included architectural elements and a decorated mosaic floor (Figs. 5, 6); installations for processing agricultural produce; cisterns; burial caves; and quarries. A hewn pool, winepress treading floors, rock-hewn cisterns and quarries were documented (below) within the precincts of the ruin, as well as various size building stones, and potsherds that dated from Iron Age II until the Early Islamic period were gathered.
Building (21; Map of Lod : Site 32). Remains of a building (5.0×8.5 m; Fig. 7), in which two threshold stones survived, were discovered on a hill. A few potsherds from Iron Age II and the Byzantine and Early Islamic periods were collected.
Rock-hewn Winepresses. Five winepresses (2, 9, 20, 43, 49) hewn in bedrock outcrops (Figs. 8–12) were surveyed.
Cisterns (14, 23, 70). Cistern 14 is hewn alongside a field road (13), west of the wall that delineated the road. The cistern (diam. of opening 1.05 m, depth c. 3.6 m) is bell-shaped. A capstone (diam. 1.28 m), half of which is preserved, was placed on its opening and three shallow depressions are cut in the upper part, probably for closing (Fig. 13). A channel (length 3.4 m, width 0.18 m, depth 0.2 m) is hewn near the opening and next to it is a negative of the rock-cutting. Cistern 23 is located on a slope c. 40 m east of Building 21. Its opening (diam. c. 0.95 m; Fig. 14) is blocked with two boulders. A negative of a rock-cutting is visible on a bedrock outcrop (1.5×1.7 m), south of the cistern. Cistern 70 is hewn in the slope west of Horbat Bira (Fig. 15). It is bell-shaped and has a circular opening (diam. 1.1 m, depth 0.5 m). The bedrock around the cistern’s opening is dressed and channels for conveying water into the cistern were hewn in it.
Burial Caves. Nine burial caves (1, 11, 12, 17, 25, 26, 28, 29, 31), a shaft tomb (19) and two other caves (27, 48) were surveyed. Cave 1 is hewn on a spur, descending to the southeast and later rock-cuttings damaged its plan (Fig. 16). Cave 11 was plundered in the past (Fig. 17). Cave 12 is hewn on a bedrock outcrop (Fig. 18). It seems that the caves are concentrated along the edge of the hills where building remains are located.
Quarries. Eleven building-stone quarries were discerned (4, 6, 32, 37, 46, 60, 63, 68, 69, 72, 73). The large and impressive Quarry 37 appears to have damaged a burial complex (Figs. 19–22).
Stone Heaps. Piles of building stones were documented in three sites (39, 50, 58).
Pools. Two pools were recorded (34, 35; Fig. 23).
Limekilns. Five kilns (3, 36, 44, 47 and 53) that utilized the building stones in the area for producing lime were documented (Fig. 24).
In addition, installations for processing agricultural produce (10, 22, 24, 62), hewn basins (45, 54, 65, 71), farming terraces (15, 38, 59), stone clearance heaps (5, 8, 55, 56, 64), a wall (57), field walls (7, 16, 18), cupmarks (40, 51, 61, 67), rock-cuttings (30, 66, 74) and concentrations of potsherds (52), were surveyed.