The Ottoman-Period Bridge (1). At the southern end of the dam from the Byzantine period, south of the regulating installation, remains of a bridge that dated to the Ottoman period (3.0×3.2 m) were exposed. The bridge was built to facilitate passage above the three deep sluices of the regulating installation (P1–3); it was founded on a bridge from the Byzantine period that had collapsed. As seen in an old photograph (Fig. 4), the bridge was apparently built sloping gently to the south and two or three steps led to it. During the construction of the bridge, the southern sluice of the regulating installation (P4) was blocked with stone collapse and part of that sluice’s southern pillar was dismantled. The foundation of the bridge (exposed length c. 3 m) was built of fieldstones and small and medium ashlars, without bonding material.
The Regulating Installation (2). A blockage that dated to the end of the Byzantine period (seventh century CE), based on a fragment of a bag-shaped jar discovered in its bottom, was dismantled down to bedrock in Sluice P2. The bottom part of the blockage, above the bedrock, was a fill that consisted of large fieldstones and ashlars, without mortar (Fig. 5). This fill was overlain with a course of partially worked fieldstones and a wooden beam was placed above it (Fig. 6). Four courses of partially worked fieldstones and gray mortar were built in the upper part of the blockage. Wooden gates that flanked Sluice P2 were exposed last season; they were preserved in situ, and dated to the construction phase of the regulating installation (fourth century CE; Fig. 7; HA-ESI 116).
The Distribution Pool (3). The last remaining section of the stone floor in the northeastern corner of the distribution pool, which was built over the pool’s original bedrock floor, was dismantled (HA-ESI 116). The fill below the stone floor was also excavated and judging by the finds it contained, the stone floor was probably constructed at the end of the Byzantine period, when Sluices P1–3 were blocked in the regulating installation.
The Complex West of the Distribution Pool (4). Five main phases were discerned: Phases 1–3 dated to the Byzantine period (fourth–seventh centuries CE), Phase 4 dated to the Middle Ages and Phase 5—to the Ottoman period.
(1) During the construction of the dam in the first phase, this region was the western part of the diversion sluice; the distribution pool and the construction to the west of it did not exist yet.
(2) A massive wall (W2380, W2520) was erected in the second phase, prior to the construction of the distribution pool (HA-ESI 116). An opening set in the middle of the wall led to a sluice covered with stone beams and columns (L2510; length 5 m, width c. 1.8 m; Fig. 8), which was apparently meant to drain water from the distribution pool to the stream west of the dam. Grooves discovered in the bedrock at the eastern and western ends of the passage were probably intended to secure a gate that used to block the sluice.
(3) The eastern and western openings of Sluice 2510 were blocked in the third phase with construction of roughly hewn stones. A lead pipe (length c. 1 m), whose use is unclear, was exposed in the bottom part of the eastern blockage (L2507). A wall was built across the sluice (W2511) between Phases 2 and 3; its function is unclear and it was partly dismantled before the sluice was blocked in Phase 3. The latter phase preceded the blockage of Sluices P1–3 in the regulating installation and the construction of the stone floor in the distribution pool, which dated to the seventh century CE.
(4) A flour mill was built in the fourth phase, probably in the Middle Ages; it was powered by means of water flowing down a vertical chute or chimney, similar to other flour mills that were discovered in the northern part of the dam (M14, M15; HA-ESI 116). Only the western wall of the flour mill was preserved (W2526; width 2.5 m, preserved height 1.2 m; Fig. 9); it was built of large ashlars and gray lime mortar, c. 6 m west of W2380, and it blocked the diversion sluice. Two sluices (L2527, L2528; width 0.4–0.5 m) were built in the wall, through which water that turned a horizontal paddle wheel flowed.
(5) Flour Mill M13 was built in the fifth phase—the Ottoman period. To facilitate its construction, most parts of the chimney mill were dismantled. Fill (L2512) consisting of soil and ashlars was deposited in the area between W2380 and W2526 and a feeder channel (C3) that supplied water via Sluice P3 to Flour Mill M13 was built above it.
The Low Aqueduct, the Low-Level Aqueduct and Channel C1 (5-7). The work that had not been previously finished in parts of these elements was completed this time. An excavation and removal of soil were conducted in the Lower Aqueduct and walls from the British Mandate era and earthen partitions were dismantled in the Low-Level Aqueduct. Collapse and a blockage from the Ottoman period were excavated in Channel C1 and a concentration of terracotta pipes, which were fired in a kiln, dating to the British Mandate, was taken apart (storeroom?; Fig. 10).
Pipe Kiln Dating to the British Mandate (8). The exposure of the pipe kiln was completed in the northeastern corner of the quarry (Fig. 11). The kiln, built on the northern part of the Low-Level Aqueduct, was used to fire terracotta pipes, which were utilized in draining the springs when the Kebara Swamps were dried in 1927–1932. The walls of the kiln were built of kurkar and lined with clay bricks on the interior. The floor of the kiln was also built of clay bricks. An iron door was installed in the opening of the kiln, set in its southern side; only the bottom part of the door was preserved. Several terracotta pipes and pipe fragments were discovered in the kiln’s foundation trenches; hence, it is evident that the kiln was renovated sometime during the course of its operation. A channel (length 6 m, width 0.2 m, depth 0.10–0.15 m) was exposed between the kiln and the quarry, c. 0.6 m east of the kiln’s wall. Its sides were built of clay bricks and it was covered with fieldstones. It is unclear what the channel was used for and whether it is related to the kiln.
The dam was built at the end of the third and beginning of fourth centuries CE; numerous changes were made to it during its long period of use. Already in the Byzantine period, many modifications were made to the regulating installation, the distribution pool and to the area in the west. These changes stemmed from two main reasons: the first concerned the addition of the flour mill complex, built west of the southern end of the dam and powered by means of water that flowed via the regulating installation, and the second related to the planners and builders of the dam and the complexes connected to it, who were apparently insufficiently experienced in constructing such a system, which is unique in the country and in the world of the Roman and Byzantine periods.In later periods, the system supplying water to the flour mills was modified to conform to the water level in the reservoir, which by then had fallen by more than a meter.