Stratum 4 consisted ofthree walls (W10, W11 and W13) and a floor (L106; Fig. 1). Wall 10, oriented north–south, is built of medium-sized fieldstones. It runs parallel to Wall 11, which is a low stone foundation, built of flat rectangular fieldstones. Pillars were placed on top of the wall, four of which are still standing. The pillars consist of stacked flat fieldstones and are preserved 0.6 m high. Floor 106, composed of flat fieldstones, is set between these two walls (Fig. 2) on top of bedrock, with a thin layer of dark compact soil separating between them. Wall 11 was cut by Wall 12 on its northern side and Wall 13 adjoins W10 on the east. Hence, it is assumed that the building had extended eastward. The potsherds overlaying Floor 106 dated the building to the early Iron Age and included a perforated spout (Fig. 3:1), a body fragment with brown decoration on white background (Fig. 3:2) and the base of a vessel with three small knob legs (Fig. 3:3).
A small scaraboid (Fig. 3:4) was found above Floor 106. It is made of black stone and bears a simple geometrical decoration of vertical and horizontal lines, possibly representing a scorpion or a small reptile. The back of the scarab is smooth, without evidence of wings and a hole is perforated lengthwise through it.
Two slabs were lifted in the northeastern part of Floor 106, to investigate the pottery underneath it. Very few potsherds were found, including a single diagnostic bowl rim of light orange color with red slip (Fig. 3:5), which is dated to the Early Iron Age.
Stratum 3 comprised a large amount of stone debris (L103), resulting from later occupation levels that did not survive. The debris included a large number of stones and mixed potsherds that point to the different time periods when the site was occupied. The potsherds included a cooking pot from the Iron Age (Fig. 4:1), an amphora from the Persian period (Fig. 4:2) and a jar from the Hellenistic period (Fig. 4:3), as well as significant numbers of Galilean coarse ware jar rims (Fig. 4:4, 5).
Stratum 2 represents the Mamluk period at the site. A poorly built wall (W12), oriented north–south, was exposed to the west of W11. It was constructed from small and medium fieldstones and its foundation was set upon Floor 106 of Stratum 4. While excavating at the northern end of W11 (L105), Mamluk pottery was discovered, including a bowl (Fig. 5:1) and a complete cooking pot (Fig. 5:2).
A refuse pit (L102) was excavated in the northeastern side of the area. The pit contained a large amount of reddish soil and a plethora of small Mamluk potsherds and was responsible for the damage to the northern part of W10.
Stratum 1 is surface soil which consisted of a light brown, compact and very hard layer that contained many Ottoman, Mamluk and Iron Age potsherds.
The importance of the excavation at Safsaf lays in the exposure of a pillared house, set on bedrock and dating to the Early Iron Age, which is a rarity in this area. The building was in a fair state of preservation and a scarab of the period was found on its floor.
The site was then abandoned until the Mamluk period, when at least one wall was built, cutting down into the Iron Age structure.
The other main result of this excavation is the complete absence of Roman and Byzantine pottery in the excavated area, which puts the earlier identification of the site in serious doubt.